Here are some ideas why these unique trees drop their needles.
- No needles on the branches mean the snow can shed and prevent ice build-up, and this can reduce the possibility of broken branches.
- Annual needle loss might help the trees fight off pests and disease.
- They don’t need to worry about “feeding” the needles during the long cold winters like other conifers do, which means their energy can go to keeping their “core” warm.
- The new needles that grow every spring are easier to maintain, as they are, in a sense, disposable. Also, the new needles are incredibly efficient, which results in a high rate of photosynthesis. Efficiency is a good thing, as the growing season in the upper alpine is very short – approximately four months.
There are three species of Larch trees in Alberta: Subalpine Larch, Western Larch and Tamarack, and all three of these species lose their needles in the fall. However, it is the glamorous golden Subalpine Larch that draws the “fall weekend warriors” to the mountains.
The Subalpine Larch, also Known as Lyall’s Larch (Larix lyallii)
this is THE TREE that everyone goes to see. If you have travelled to Lake Louise in the fall, you know what I mean: the road, parking lots and trails are full of people wanting to hike to Larch Valley to admire the magnificent golden larches.
Another name for the Subalpine Larch is Lyalls Larch, named after David Lyall – a Scottish surgeon and botanist, who collected many specimens while serving with the North American Boundary commission
Subalpine Larch Facts:
- They like dry, gravelly soils, and their roots help with soil erosion.
- They usually grow in pure stands, which means they don’t have “squatters,” other tree species, living with them.
- A dense white tangle of hair covers their branches, which after a few years, turn black, therefore giving the appearance that the branch is dead.
- They have a contorted, rugged-looking appearance, and given the harsh, high alpine conditions that they live in, that isn’t surprising. These trees spend eight months of the year in the cold!
- A small tree does not mean a young tree – the subalpine has a very short growing season. A 15m tree, although not tall, could be well over 300 years old! Some of the oldest living trees in Canada are Larch trees in British Columbia’s Manning Provincial Park. They may be over 1,900 years old. (Tree Canada Blog – November 27, 2012)
- The young shoot tips of the Alpine Larch can be made into a soup for emergency survival.
Do They Have Any Commercial Value?
Yes….Tourism! Look at the “weekend warriors” that flock out to the Lake Louise/Banff area every September for 2 or 3 weeks to see the colors!!!!
Have you been? Were you able to drive to the parking lot or did you need to take the shuttle?
The Western Larch (Larix Occidentalis)
is another larch found in Alberta, but only in the southern part, close to the British Columbia border. As the name implies, these grow on the western slopes, and are common at lower elevations.
Western larch Facts
- The Western Larch is the tallest of the Larches – it can reach 40m
- Fairly symmetrical in shape
- Seldom grow in pure stands, and are mixed with pine and spruce
- Thick deeply furrowed bark (3-6 inches deep) on mature trees helps them withstand fire
- Mature trees shed their lower branches to keep from catching fire.
- Seedlings and younger trees are often found in burnt-out areas.
- Sun-loving, and do well in burnt-out areas
It Is An Important Tree For The Forestry Industry
- The hard, sturdy, yet flexible wood is used in heavy construction and for railway ties.
- The naturally rot-resistant resins and tannins in the heartwood of the larch are ideal for use in outdoor buildings, decking, posts, poles, and fences.
Tamarack/Eastern larch/ Hackmatack (Larix laricina)
The name Tamarack comes from the Algonquin word, akemantak, which means, “wood for snowshoes.” (British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations,)
Tamarack Interesting Facts
- They are Symmetrical and short
- Grow 5-10m high in the Rockies
- They prefer to grow in cold, wet, poorly drained, boggy soils; they are usually found with Black Spruce.
- They have a thin, smooth grey bark when young, that turns reddish-brown and scaly as it ages.
- The branches are “hairless”
Tannin from the bark can be extracted and used for tanning leather
- In the days of wooden ships, Tamarack roots were used for joining ribs to deck timbers.
- A poultice made from the bark can help with skin conditions, such as Eczema and Psoriasis
- Gum from the Bark can be chewed for indigestion
- The Ojibwe used the dried leaves as an inhalant and fumigator
*source: Terry Willard Ph.D., Edible and Medicinal Plants of the Rocky Mountains and Neighbouring Territories.
As you can see, the Larches/Tamaracks, provide so much more than just “fall eye candy” for us
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